Rating Scales | types of rating scales | types of rating | rating types | principles of rating scales | rating scale questionnaire | three point scale | Skip to main content
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Rating Scales | types of rating scales | types of rating | rating types | principles of rating scales | rating scale questionnaire | three point scale |


Rating Scales:
            Barr & others define rating as: “Rating is a term applied to expression of opinion or judgment regarding some situation, object or character. Opinions are usually expressed on a scale of values. Rating techniques are devices by which such judgements may be quantified”.


Rating
      Three point scale   :  Above average / Average / Below average
      Five point scale      : Excellent / Very good / Good / Average / Poor
   Seven point scale : Outstanding / Excellent / Very good / Good / Fair / Below Average / Failure/Absent

Principles of Defining a Rating Scale
      The characteristics should be clearly defined
      The characteristics should be readily observable
      Degrees of the characteristics must be defined

Types of Rating Scales

1. Numerical Rating scale 2. Descriptive Rating Scale 3. Graphical Rating Scale 4. Score cards  5. The rank Order Scale 6. Method of Paired comparisons 7. Man-To-Man Scale

1. Numerical Rating scale
            In which numbers are assigned to each trait.  If it is a seven point scale, the number 7 represents the maximum amount of that trait in the individual and 4 represents the average.  The rater merely enters the appropriate number after each name to indicate judgment of the person.
A             B          C              D           E          F          G
1              2            3              4            5           6           7

2. Descriptive Rating Scale
In which descriptive phrases or terms assigned to each trait.  The rater enters the appropriate phrase after each name to indicate judgment of the person.
A               B              C               D               E
Excellent    Good         Average       Below average        Poor

3. Graphical Rating Scale
            A straight line may be represented by descriptive phrases at various points.  To rate the subject for a particular trait a check mark is made at the particular point.
Low Moral      Good Moral    High Moral
0           25         50          75           100

4. Score Cards
            It is a type of scale in which whatever is being rated is analyzed into its component parts.  An expert assigns each part of a maximum score.  The rater assign a value to each item as he passes judgment, and these values are summed up and a final score is pronounced.

5. The Rank Order Scale
            In this type the judge is simply required to place the people being rated in a rank order from high to low on the attitude or opinion in question. A given individual’s scale position is given in relation to other people in the sample. The units of the scale are unequal.

6. Method of Paired comparisons
            In which the rater compares each person being rated with respect to the trait of every other individual, being rated in the general terms of equal better or worse.

7. Man-To-Man Scale
            In this case,  an  individual  is  asked  to  rate the  person to be rated  (the rate)  by comparing him to a person already rated and  assigned  a  position  on  the scales.  The rate is assigned his position.


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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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