Leadership Styles | Kurt Lewin | Autocratic | Democratic | Laissez faire | Leaders | leadership Skip to main content
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Leadership Styles | Kurt Lewin | Autocratic | Democratic | Laissez faire | Leaders | leadership


Leadership:

Definition

         Leadership is a process by which person can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation.
         According to Keith Davis, “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.”

Meaning

         It is a inter-personal process in which a person is influencing and guiding a group towards attainment of goals.
         It denotes a few qualities to be present in a person which includes intelligence, maturity and personality.
         It is a group process. It involves two or more people interacting with each other.
         A leader is involved in shaping and molding the behaviour of the group towards accomplishment of organizational goals.
         Leadership is situation bound. There is no best style of leadership. It all depends upon tackling with the situations.

 Leadership Traits: Raymond Cattell (1954)
         Emotional stability.
         Dominance.
         Enthusiasm.
         Conscientiousness.
         Social boldness.
         Tough-mindedness.
         Self-assurance.
         Compulsiveness.


Leadership Styles (Kurt Lewin, 1930)

            Psychologist Kurt Lewin developed his framework in the 1930s, and it provided the foundation of many of the approaches that followed afterwards. He argued that there are three major styles of leadership:


1. Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting their team members, even if their input would be useful. This can be appropriate when you need to make decisions quickly, when there's no need for team input, and when team agreement isn't necessary for a successful outcome. However, this style can be demoralizing, and it can lead to high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover.

2. Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision-making process. They encourage creativity, and people are often highly engaged in projects and decisions. As a result, team members tend to have high job satisfaction and high productivity. This is not always an effective style to use, though, when you need to make a quick decision.

3.  Laissez Faire leaders give their team members a lot of freedom in how they do their work, and how they set their deadlines. They provide support  with resources and advice if needed, but otherwise they don't get involved. This autonomy can lead to high job satisfaction, but it can be damaging if team members don't manage their time well, or if they don't have the knowledge, skills, or self motivation to do their work effectively. (Laissez-faire leadership can also occur when managers don't have control over their work and their people.)

Leadership Styles and Classroom Climate

                    All the three Democratic, Autocratic and Laissez faire  styles of leadership have its own advantages and disadvantages. Anyhow selection of style and integrating it is i the hands of the teacher according to the situation and need.
  •          Enhancing the learners’ language-related values and attitudes
  •          Increasing the learners’ expectancy of success
  •          Increasing the learners’ goal-orientedness
  •          Making the teaching materials relevant for the learners
  •          Creating realistic learner beliefs.
  •          Making learning stimulating and enjoyable
  •          Presenting tasks in a motivating way
  •          Setting specific learner goals
  •          Protecting the learners’ self-esteem and increasing their self-confidence
  •          Creating learner autonomy
  •          Promoting self-motivating learner strategies
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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education

Palayamkottai. 

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