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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

J.P. Guilford Theory of Intellect | Structure of Intellect | Guilford theory | intellect | contents | products | operations |

J.P. GUILFORD


J.P. Guilford Theory of Intellect (Structure of Intellect) 


In Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI) theory, intelligence is viewed as comprising operations, contents, and products. There are 5 kinds of operations (cognition, memory, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation), 6 kinds of products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications), and 5 kinds of contents (visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral). Since each of these dimensions is independent, there are theoretically 150 different components of intelligence.   

CONTENT:


            By content he meant that different people seemed to pay more attention to and think more effectively about different kinds of information, such as:

§  Visual information directly from the senses or from imaging

§  Auditory information directly from the senses or from images

§  Symbolic items such as words and symbols which generally convey some meaning

§  Semantic meanings often, but not always, associated with words

§  Behavioral information about the mental states and behaviour of observed individuals.


PRODUCTS:      


The products dimension relates to the kinds of information we process from the content types:

§  Units refers to the ability to perceive units in a content area. This might be symbolic units such as words, visual units such as shapes, or behavioral units such as facial expressions.

§  Classes refers to the ability to organize units into meaningful groups and to sort units into the right groups.

§  Relations pertain to the ability to sense the relationships between pairs of units.

§  Systems consist of the relationships among more than two units.

§  Transformations is the ability to understand changes in information, such as rotation of visual figures, or jokes and puns in the semantic area.

§  Implications  refers to expectation. Given a certain set of information, one might expect certain other information to be true. With the two dimensions of content and product we can sort out all the kinds of information people can think about.

OPERATIONS:


       The operations dimension describes what the brain does with and to these types of information:

§  Cognition has to do with the ability to perceive the various items. For example, the cognition of semantic units has to do with one's ability to recognize words, i.e. one's vocabulary. Cognition of Behavioral Transformations would be the ability to perceive changes in the expressions of an individual.

§  Memory has to do with the ability to store and retrieve various kinds of information. People differ in their abilities to remember not only from other people, but also among various kinds of information. Some people who are poor at remembering faces (behavioral units) may be excellent at remembering puns (semantic transformations).

§  Divergent production has to do with the ability to access memory. It refers to the ability to find large numbers of things which fit certain simple criteria. For example, the ability to divergently produce visual units includes the ability to list a great many images which include a circle. Divergence in behavioral transformations would include the ability to revise stories about people. Divergence in Symbolic Implications would include the ability to list various equations which can be deduced from given equations.

§  Convergent Production is the search of memory for the single answer to a question or situation. This area includes most areas of logic type problem solving. It differs from divergence in the constraint of one right answer. It seems likely that performance on convergent tasks is actually the result of divergent production and evaluation, but it is an often tested for skill, and the one most often associated with IQ..

§  Evaluation is the ability to make judgments about the various kinds of information, judgments such as which items are identical in some way, which items are better, and what qualities are shared by various items.

Principles


1. Reasoning and problem-solving skills (convergent and divergent operations) can be subdivided into 30 distinct abilities (6 products x 5 contents).

2. Memory operations can be subdivided into 30 different skills (6 products x 5 contents).

3. Decision-making skills (evaluation operations) can be subdivided into 30 distinct abilities (6 products x 5 contents).

4. Language-related skills (cognitive operations) can be subdivided into 30 distinct abilities (6 products x 5 contents).

Educational Implications

(1)   In the present world, knowledge is expanding very fast, forcing specialization even at the earlier stages of the educative process. Special aspects of intellectual activity are involved in the different specialization processes both academic and professional. It is therefore needed "a prior" knowledge about the specific ability of each student to place him in the right line of specialization.

(2)   When some students with adequate intelligence fails to learn, corrective learning (also        known as cognitive therapy) in that case first requires an accurate measure of his abilities, and some concrete steps for utilizing his strengths and developing him where he is weak.

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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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