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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

INTELLIGENCE | Measuring Intelligence | chronological | mental | Nature of Intelligence | intelligence Definition | IQ | classification of intelligence |


INTELLIGENCE 


INTELLIGENCE

Meaning
Intelligence is a mental energy of a human and it is a capacity on task. Intelligence helps a person to keep energetic and happy controlled life.

Definition: Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment (Wechsler, 1944)

            Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with one’s environment. (Thorndike, 1914)

Nature of Intelligence
  It follows the normal distribution like others
  It differs to very one or unique to every one
  It changes according the age.
  It does not depend on gender
  The intelligence is not the birth right of any caste, religion, race or group
  It is the mental energy of an individual to handle the task on sight/immediate environment.

Measuring Intelligence
            In 1905 at the time of First World War, Alfred Binet and Siman are the two psychologists try to measure intelligence.  They had a tool that consists of 30 items.  These items are arranged in order of difficulty.  By administering this item, we can measure the intelligence.  In 1908, they revised this test.  Once again they revised this test in 1911.  The response of the test given by the pupils will show the mental age of the person.  The word ‘Mental Age’ was coined by Binet.  With this mental age he tried to find out the Intelligence Quotient’ (IQ).
            IQ defines as the ratio between an individual’s mental age and his chronological age.

                           Metal Age
IQ      =         -------------------------
         Chronological Age
           
                           M.A
IQ      =            -----------
               C.A

Eg.       A Persons Mental age = 8 and His Chronological age = 6

     8
IQ       =        ----------------      = 1.33
                 6
           
ie. IQ will be 
                         
   M.A
IQ      =       ------------------ X 100
               C.A
The term IQ was first used by William Stern and widely used by Terman ( Geneman Psychologists)

Classification of Intelligence

Even though there are different classifications of intelligence, a standard classification is given below

S.No.
IQ
Percentage
Classification
1
140 to 169
1
Genius
2
120 to 139
5
Superior
3
110 to 119
14
High Average
4
90 to 109
60
Normal (Average)
5
80 to 89
14
Below Average
6
70 to 79
5
Slow learner
7
60 to 69
1
Mentally Challenged
8
50 to 59
-
Feeble minded(Educable & Trainable)
9
40 to 49
-

 Custodial
10.
30 to 39
-
11.
Below 29
-

S.No.
IQ
%
Classification
1
140 & Above
1
Genius/Gifted
2
120 to 139
5
 Very Superior
3
110 to 119
14
 Superior
4
90 to 109
60
Normal (Average)
5
75 to 89
14
Borderline or Dull 
6
50 to 74
5
Morons
7
25 to 49
1
Imbeciles
8
Below 25
-
Idiots
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Notes By


Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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