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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Group factor theory of Intelligence | L.L. Thurston | Primary Mental Abilities | theory of Intelligence | Group factor | PMA |

Group – factor theory of Intelligence (L.L. Thurston) (Primary Mental Abilities)



            Louis Leon Thurston developed this theory by using students of Chicago University. Every individual has 7 group factors. That is called as primary mental group abilities. He developed the theory based on factor analysis test. According to Thurston every individual has a number of groups of mental abilities (activities). Each group has its own primary factor. So the intelligence is composed on 7 mental abilities. He called these 7 mental abilities which constitute intelligence as “Primary Mental Abilities”. Later it was revised as 8 abilities.

Primary Mental Abilities (PMA)

1. Perceptional Speed: The ability to grasp visual details and see the similarities and differences among the objects.

2. Memory: The ability to memorize quickly and the capacity of retrieving it.

3. Reasoning: There are two type of reasoning.
1.      Inductive reasoning: From specific to general
2.      Deductive Reasoning: From general to particular.

4. Word-Fluency: The ability to think of words fluently.

5. Spatial Relations: The ability to draw a design from memory or to visualize space-for, relationship.

6.  The Numerical Ability: The ability to do numerical calculations rapidly and accurately.

7. Verbal meaning: The ability to define and understand words and ideas.

8. Problem solving: The ability to solve problems with independent efforts. 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Notes By


Dr. A. Michael J Leo

Psychology Professor

St. Xavier's College of Education

Palayamkottai. 


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