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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

FORGETTING | causes of forgetting | forgetting causes |



  1. Forgetting is the loss, permanent or temporary, of an ability to recall or recognize something learned earlier – Munn.
  2. Forgetting means failure at any time to recall an experience, when attempting to do so or to perform an action previously learned – Drever.

1. Disuse: 
If the learned material is not used for a long time by the individual,then it  will be forgotten.

2. Decay: 
It refers to the learned things that are fading away from the memory. Decay theory states that when something new is learned, a neurochemical, physical "memory trace" is formed in the brain and over time this trace tends to disintegrate, unless it is occasionally used.

3. Fatigue: 
Forgetting is also due to the mental tiredness, toxins. They are disturbing the brain function that leads to forgetting. This  normally occurs in the old age of the people.

4. Emotional Disturbances: 
Mental tensions, shocks, fear, anxiety, illness, frustration and drug addiction also lead to forgetting.

5. Interference: 
Interference theory refers to the idea that forgetting occurs because the recall of certain items interferes with the recall of other items. In nature, the interfering items are said to originate from an over stimulating environment. Interference theory exists in two branches, Retroactive and Proactive inhibition each referring in contrast to the other.

  • Pro-active inhibition: The interference of the present learning by previous learning is called as pro-active inhibition. E.g. the students have studied the addition of numbers. Now the teacher is teaching the multiplication of numbers. Now the teacher askS the studentS to say 3 × 2 =?. The student says the answer as 5. This is because of the interference of the old one into the new learnt material.

  • Retro-active inhibition: The interference of previously learnt material by the subsequent learning material is called retro-active inhibition. 

6. Repression: 
It is the process of pushing away the thoughts and feelings from the conscious to unconscious mind, that results forgetting. It is the impact of the painful experiences in the life of the individual.

7. Lack of interest
If the individual learns the material with great interest, there is less chance for forgetting. Lack of interest leads to lack of attention and concentration those results in forgetting.

8. Organic causes
Forgetting that occurs through physiological damage to the brain is referred to as organic cause of forgetting. These theories encompass the loss of information already retained in long term memory or the inability to encode new information again. Examples include Alzheimer's, Dementia, consolidation theory and the gradual slowing down of the central nervous system due to aging.

9. Amnesia: 
It occurs due to the brain damage. There are two types: Partial Amnesia - parts of thinking forgetful; Total Amnesia – forgetful  of thinking. This is may be caused by the shock or accident from childhood to adults.

10. Motivational Factors: 
If the individual learns the content with greater motivation, there is little forgetting but if the individual is not motivated to learn, he will easily forget the content.

11. Meaningfulness of Material: 
If the given materials are meaningful and purposeful, the learner will not easily forget them.

12. Controversy of Material: 
If there is no association among the learning materials or controversial learning materials leads to the lack of interest and retention which causes forgetting.