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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Creativity | function of Creativity | stages of creative thinking | process of creativity | incubation | dimensions of creativity | Torrance Test of Creative Thinking | Baqur Mehndi’s Test of Creative Thinking |


Creativity is defined as the ability to bring something new into existence. Creativity is distinguished by novelty, originality and is unusually inventive. It was believed to be a heaven’s gift, a rare quality of distinguished individuals with inborn talent.   It is the main source of emergence and development of human culture.  The present day scientific and technological progress has been made possible through creativity.  Music, painting, poetry and other forms of art that give us not only pleasure and joy, but also lend a new meaning to life, are all products of creativity.

            Torrence (1966) defined creativity is a process of becoming sensitive to problem, deficiencies, gaps in knowledge, missing elements, disharmonious and so on; identifying the difficulty, searching for solutions, making guesses or formulating hypotheses and possibly modifying and retesting them and finally communicating the results”.

            Chambers (1973) defined creativity is a multi-dimensional process of interaction between the organism and its environment, which results in the emergence of a new and unique product.

Whereas Peli (1988) defined ‘Creativity is a process of interacting with the organism to bring out desired learning outcome, ability to generate novel ideas spontaneously, adapting to situations, using the immediate environment for effective communication.  Provoking thought in interacting agency.

Functions of Creativity:

            Creativity is a general ability possessed by all essentially healthy individuals to some degree.  All people think in terms of different levels of creativity.  A great deal of mist surrounds the word creativity.   They are as follows:

(i)        Creativity as a Talent
(ii)      Creativity as a Process
(iii)    Creativity as a Novel Ideas
(iv)     Creativity as a New Thinking
(v)       Creativity as a Problem Solving Capacity

Stages of Creative Thinking/The process of Creativity:

        Graham Walls (1926) proposed four steps for creative thinking process as the ordinary problem-solving process which is generally characterized by four phases known as preparation, incubation, illumination and evaluation or verification and revision.

(i)  Preparation:  
One make purposeful study makes all the efforts to gather information, collects the facts and material considered necessary for the new solution. 

(ii) Incubation:  
It is the period when creative thinker turns over the idea in his mind leisurely and periodically.  He allows it to mature.  He does not hurry with it nor completely forgets about it. 

(iii) Illumination:  
At this stage clear conception of the answer to the problem emerges.  All his earlier study, tossing over of the idea in the mind is rewarded by solution which seems appropriate. 

(iv) Evaluation or Verification:  
The solution is tested to see whether it satisfactorily solves the problem.                  

(v) Revision:  
In some cases the solution needs some minor modification and so revision is made.

Dimensions of Creativity:

            Creativity, which is also called divergent thinking, is in contrast to convergent thinking.  Convergent thinking follows the conventional path to arrive at a conclusion that leads to one correct answer, an answer similar to that which others would have reached.  In convergent thinking, the person goes step-by-step.  Sequentially, logically, analytically, linearly, to find the one correct answer and thus closes one’s thinking operation.  Divergent thinking seeks many alternatives, goes off the beaten track, goes beyond the obvious, takes leaps, is adventurous and takes risks, is discontinuous, is provocative, fluent, flexible, original and open-minded.
            Divergent thinking consists of five dimensions: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and evaluation.

It refers to the ease with which a quality of ideas of the same class is generated and expressed within a limited time.  The number of ideas expressed is important.  The more ideas expressed often leads to better ideas or solutions.  Quantity leads to quality.

(i) Ideational fluency refers to the ability to produce a large number of ideas in a situation requiring few restrictions other than time.  What is needed here are a quantity of ideas, the greater if ideas the better, because quantity leads to quality of ideas.   The ideas presented are of the same class or category.

(ii)Verbal fluency is the ease and ability with which a person can quickly use words that fulfill certain conditions.  This ability helps for success in school and college studies of the humanities and sciences and especially in public speaking and writing and is extremely useful in public relations by managers and administrators.

(iii) Associational fluency is the ability of being aware of relationships and the ease which a person can provide apt meanings, for instance, by providing synonyms or similar.

(iv)  Expressional fluency is the ability and ease with which one combines words according to certain conditions.  For instance, in two minutes write down as many sentences as you can with the letters used at the beginning of each word.

It is the ability of mind to shift easily from one train of thought to another, from one category or class to another in a versatile manner.  The ideas are not of the same class or category and their quality is different.

(i)Spontaneous flexibility is the mental ability of a person to find ideas of different classes, or categories, to change tracks of thought, to get out of conventional mental ruts and fixed habits of thinking and to seek versatility of thinking.

(ii)Adaptive flexibility is the mental ability of departing from traditional methods of thinking and doing things in favour of same novel approaches, which may require changing fixed positions or reversing procedures.

It is a quality of the mind that can produce unusual, clever, uncommon, unexpected and remote answers which depart from the conventional and standard ones.

It is the mental skill to work out the implications and consequences of an idea, and to produce the detailed steps in working it out.  It is also called redefinition or the ability to define or perceive in a way different from the usual.  At times a person lacks the skill to elaborate his original idea and someone else brings out the practical ways that idea could be implemented.

It is the mental skill to judge the suitability, aptness or adequacy of a statement or a solution to a problem proposed and to determine the consequences or results if it were implemented.

Measurement of Creativity
            It is most important for a teacher to identify creative students in his classroom. The students vary in both quality and quantity of their creativity. The creativity consists of four abilities - originality, fluency, flexibility and elaboration. Therefore, structural differences exist among high creative students with regard to these ability. The composite score of creativity is useful for teacher, guide and counsellor. The individual differences among students with regard to creative abilities provide the basis and insight to the teachers for organizing his teaching-learning programmes or educative processes.

Creativity Tests: Various tests of creativity have been constructed for measuring creative abilities. Some important tests have been listed here.

1. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (1966)

2. Baqur Mehndi’s Test of Creative Thinking (1973).
            Creativity is more important than intellectual abilities incorporating in the educative process. A teacher should understand the nature of creativity by measuring it. A brief description of these tests has been provided here.


            His name is most popular in the area of creativity.. Torrance (1966) has developed a series of verbal and figural tests of creativity. Torrance emphasizes on creative thinking processes, where as Guilford tries to emphasize on creative aptitudes or traits. Torrance has developed five verbal tests and three figural or picture test.

The following are the five verbal tests:

1. Ask-and-guess Activities - The student is presented with a drawing in response to which he is to (1) ask all the questions he can think of (2) list all the possible causes of the action he can think of and (3) list many consequences of the action as he can think of.

2. Product improvement - The student is presented with a drawing of a toy and asked to list the cleverest, interesting and unusual ways of changing the toy to make it more fun to play with.

3. Unusual uses - As in the case of Guilford’s Brick uses Test, the student is given the name of an object and asked to list as many interesting and unusual uses as he can think of.

4. Unusual Questions - Using the same object, the student must think of unusual questions about particular aspects of the object.

5. Just Suppose - The student is presented with an improbable situation to think about and he must list all the exciting things that might happen if this event occurred.

The following are the Three Figural or Picture Tests:

1. Picture construction - The student is presented with a colored shape and asked to think of a drawing he could make to incorporate this shape. Then he sticks the shape to a blank sheet of paper and adds pencil or organ lines to complete the drawing.

2. Picture completion - The student must make interesting objects and pictures out of simple, incomplete nonsense figures and entitle each drawing.

3. Parallel line - The student must make drawing of objects out of several pairs of straight lines and entitle each drawing.

Reliability and Validity of Torrance Tests - Since creativity is a pervasive capacity of the individual, we expect the individual who scores high on test will score high on all the other tests of creativity. The correlation among tests of creativity range from near zero to as high as0.40. The main difficulty is that there is no fixed correct answer of any questions. There are indefinite answers of these questions of creativity. It is the problem for estimating the reliability and validity creativity test. It is the prime quality in music and astitic production.

            In our Indian scientists, Baqur Mehndi and M. K. Rainai names are most popular. They have contributed significantly in the area of creativity. Baqur Mehndi constructed to assess creative talent in (1973) for thirteen years old students.

His Test-of Creativity consists of the following four tests:
(1) Consequence test
(2) Unusual uses test
(3) Similarity test and
(4) Product improvement test.

First three tests consist of three items in each test and last test has only one item.

Name of Test
No. of items
Consequence Test
15 mts
Unusual uses Test
12 mts
Similarity Test
15 mts
Product improvement Test
06 mts
Total - 4 Tests
10 items
48 mts

Baqur Mehndi’s test-consists four tests, include 10 items and duration for administering the tests is 48 mts. Each item is to be scored for fluency, flexibility and originality according to manual of the tests. Thus three scores are determined for fluency, flexibility and originality.
The reliability of the test range from .896 to .959 and the inter-test reliabilities range from 0.653 to 0.981. The validity co-efficient against teacher rating range from, 0.32 to0.40.

Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education