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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cattell’s theory of personality | Trait theory | 16PF | cattell's theory | personality | cattell |

Raymond_Cattell

CATTELL’S THEORY OF PERSONALITY (TRAIT THEORY)
                       A trait is a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system with the capacity to render stimuli functionally equivalent and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behaviour.

It is of two kinds.          
1. Individual traits
2. Common traits

1. Individual traits:

1. Cardinal traits: 
are outstanding all pervasive, dominant in the individual life a ruling passion

2. Central traits: 
are focal of personality measured by rating scale mentioned in conversation and described in words of recommendation.

3. Secondary traits: 
are ignorable and harmless traits

Cattell’s theory of personality – (Trait theory) 16PF Profile

The Cattell 16PF (16 Personality Factor) model is probably the most-widely used system for categorizing and defining personality.  Other similar systems exist and may be preferred by certain organizations and professionals, but it's the 16PF in its various forms that is universally understood. A simple analogy would be to think of the human being as a personal computer.  Personality profiles such as 16PF measure the basic features of the PC such as the size of the hard disk, RAM, processing speed and so on.  They're relatively unchanging features of the PC that strongly influence its performance, but which we don't normally see.  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a indication of the breadth and complexity of the software loaded on the PC, which it uses to process ideas and information.  But the way in which the PC performs is mainly influenced by its environment - as represented by the user who gives it information and asks it to perform tasks.

So our underlying personality is there all the time, but the way we see it is affected by our intelligence, and by our upbringing and education, which may have taught us either to emphasise or suppress aspects of our personality.  However, if you can understand what your personality is, you can then make better use of the strengths it gives you, and make allowances for the resultant weaknesses.  Because personality is relatively unchanging through adult life, this understanding will be of long-term value to you.

THE 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS:

Each factor can be measured on a scale, determined by completing a questionnaire, and the word pairs below indicate the extremes of each scale.  The letter codes were ascribed to each scale as a shorthand notation.

Factor
Descriptors
A
Warmth
Reserved
Outgoing
B
Reasoning
Less Intelligent
More Intelligent
C
Emotional Stability
Affected by feelings
Emotionally stable
E
Dominance
Humble
Assertive
F
Liveliness
Sober
Happy-go-lucky
G
Rule Consciousness
Expedient
Conscientious
H
Social Boldness
Shy
Venturesome
I
Sensitivity
Tough-minded
Tender-minded
L
Vigilance
Trusting
Suspicious
M
Abstractedness
Practical
Imaginative
N
Privateness
Straightforward
Shrewd
O
Apprehension
Self-Assured
Apprehensive
Q1
Openness to Change
Conservative
Experimenting
Q2
Self-Reliance
Group-dependent
Self-sufficient
Q3
Perfectionism
Self-conflict
Self-control
Q4
Tension
Relaxed
Tense

Using all 16 Factors, and a more comprehensive set of descriptions than we've given here, you can create a pretty accurate picture of someone's personality.  Combinations of factors also give a more detailed picture, and with the help of a competent adviser, you can begin to recognise the "real you" that lies beneath the outward self created by your upbringing and environment.
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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education

Palayamkottai. 

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