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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY | CASE STUDY


CASE STUDY:

            The Case Study method is that method of behaviour investigation in which we try to study the behaviour of an individual in all the essential aspects by analyzing the past record, present position and future possibilities regarding his felt problem or otherwise guidance functions. It is in-depth scientific and systematic study about an individual.




Case Study - Steps:

1. Defining the Problem: The investigator is trying to find the problem and its nature by identifying some problematic situation.


2. Statement of the Problem: Here the investigator is able to state the problem and explain it.


3. Map out the protocol, strategy or structure for the case study: Here the investigator designs the study according to the need and nature of the problem. The strategy and other materials are collected for the conduct of the case study.


4. Create research questions: It is the attempt to frame questions to which the investigator has to find answer. This will direct the investigator towards the objective to be achieved.


5. Collection of Data: Here, the investigator collects data based on the research questions and objective. It may be done for a week or month based on the nature of the problem and objective.


6. Synthesis the data and analyze it: By consolidating the data, the investigator is trying to get a summary and solution to the problem.


7. Find out Solutions: By thinking twice, the solution to the problem is suggested and advised to be implemented.


8. Follow up   : Here the attempt is made to find out the feasibility of the solution.


Advantages


·         It helps us to understand an Individual deeply

·         It is more wide and comprehensive in terms of research and study

·         I is very useful in Teaching and Learning


Disadvantages


·         It may be subject to the thinking of the reporter

·         Since it is a comprehensive work, it is hard to completer it.

·         Since it is a technical and skilled work, every one cannot do it.

·         Training is need for the Investigators to do case studies

·         Experiment is difficult in the case of case studies.

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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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