BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY | clinical psychology | Developmental Psychology | Individual Psychology | Cognitive Psychology | scope and importance of psychology | Skip to main content
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY | clinical psychology | Developmental Psychology | Individual Psychology | Cognitive Psychology | scope and importance of psychology |

 BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY:


i) Cognitive Psychology

It is the study of the processes and products of growth and development of cognitive abilities and capabilities of the human beings. Example: Thinking, reasoning Logics, Intelligence and insights and Creativity and problem solving.
           
It deals with Human Experimental Psychology (Memory, Attention, Problem Solving and Language), Information Processing (Artificial intelligence and Computer simulation) and Cognitive neuro-science (brain damage and its effect on cognition).

Scope and Importance
  It studies about human attention, span of attention, division of attention, devotion and so on.
  It deals with human memory, retention and information processing scheme of the brain. Further it deals with semantic Memory and episodic Memory
  It enlightens the concepts of sensation, perception or observation which are works of the brain.
  It has a great deal in Language development of an individual, Verbal learning and reminiscence

ii) Clinical Psychology
Clinical Psychology is the scientific study of assessing, diagnosing, treating and preventing mental disorders. It deals with psychoanalytic approaches or child and adolescent treatment modalities.

Scope and Importance
  It deals with the concepts of understanding Psychopathology
  It deals with mental health issues
  It helps us to understand the concepts of assessment of personalities and deviations
  It has great deal with understanding clinical counselling
  Its scope is undertaking of feelings and coping behaviour, and adjustment mechanisms towards well being

iii) Developmental Psychology
It is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to adulthood, middle and old age. 

Scope and Importance
  It deals with the developmental Stages of human beings such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age
  It deals with the developmental areas of humans such as physical, mental, social, emotional, language and moral development.
  It enlightens the parenting psychology and familial factors influencing on growth and development
  It deals with the role of heredity and environmental Influences on growth and development

iv) Individual Psychology
Emphasizing feelings of inferiority and a desire for power as the primary motivating forces in human behaviour.

Scope and Importance
  It helps us to understand the feelings of Inferiority of a human beings
  It deals with achieving for power or significance of every individual
  It deals with the psychology concepts like compensation, Social Context , Feeling of community, Style of life, Fictional final goal, Unity of the personality, Private logic and common sense and Defense mechanisms
  Further it deals with the intelligence, memory, mental health, creativity, motivation, personality and so on

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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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