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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Attitude | Aptitude | Interest |



ATTITUDE:


            In psychology, an attitude refers to a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviours toward a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behaviour.

According to Thurston “ Attitude denotes the sum total of a man’s inclinations and feelings, prejudice or bias, pre-conceived notions, ideas, fears, threats about any specific topic”.



Characteristics of Attitude

·        It represents the state of readiness to respond a certain stimulus.
·        It may be formed even during old age
·        It is a point of view, sustained or otherwise, true or false which one holds towards an idea, object or person.
·        It include certain aspects of personality such as interest, appreciation and social contact.
·        It is learned
·        It is adopted

Measuring Attitude

Attitude scale have been prepared for the measurement of attitude
·        The method of equal appearing intervals –Thurston
·        The method of summated ratings –Likert
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APTITUDE:
Aptitude is inborn potential to do certain kinds of work whether developed or undeveloped. Ability is developed knowledge, understanding, learned or acquired abilities (skills) or attitude.

Freeman (1971):- “Aptitude is a combination of characteristics indicative of an individual’s capacity to acquire (with training) some specific knowledge, skill or set of organized responses”.



Characteristics of an Aptitude
·        It is unique composition of ability
·        It is innate as well as acquired
·        It is relatively constant
·        It is formed up to puberty
·        It is an abstract phenomenon and integrative part of personality
·        It is present condition but with forward reference
·        It is a combination of both heredity and environment  
·        It implies the prediction about the individual’s future performance

Measurement of Aptitude

Aptitude measured by employing aptitude tests.
Two type of tests: Specific Aptitude tests or Specialized aptitude tests (ability in a particular area)
Ex: Minnesota Mechanical Assembly Test (MAT) –J.L. Stenquist
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INTEREST:

Latin word ‘Interest’ –means ‘it concerns’ or ‘it matters’. So interest is just something that concerns or matters to us- (Ross)
The feeling of wanting to know or learn about something or someone
It is the feeling that promotes us to spontaneous activity.

Jmames M. Sawhrey and Charls W. Relford:-
“Interest as a favourable attitude toward objects”.

Nature and Characteristics of Interest
·         It closely linked with our instinct, basic needs, drives and motives
·          It is a precondition to attention. (Related to each other)
·          It is innate as well as acquired dispositions
·          It provide strength of an individual to resist fatigue
·          It provide energy and driving force
·          It sharpened by heredity and environment
·          It is not fixed and permanent
·          It can be measured
·          It makes effective learning

Factors affecting Interest

·        Personal factors (Physical health, mental health, Age, Sex, Behaviour, Aptitude, Motives, Emotion etc.)
·   
     Environmental factors (Socio-economic status of the family, Rearing practice, Cultural status, Education and training, Opportunities etc.)

Developing interest
·                Accept and appreciate individual differences of children
·                Provide variety materials and experiences
·                Encourage children to be spontaneous in their expression of ideas and feelings
·                Appreciate every child’s efforts
·                Story telling

Measuring Interest

We can measure interests using interest inventories. Some inventories are given below:

Kuder’s Preference Record: For High school students. It measures interest in 10 general areas: Outdoor, Mechanical, Computational, Scientific, Persuasive, Literary, Musical, Artistic, Social service and Clerical.


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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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