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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

PSYCHO ANALYSIS | Freud's Theory | Stages | Id | Ego |Super ego | Sigmund Freud


PSYCHO ANALYSIS
SIGMUND FREUD


The Origins of Psychoanalysis


Sigmund Freud was the first psychoanalyst and a true pioneer in the recognition of the importance of unconscious mental activity. In 1896, Freud coined the term "psychoanalysis," and for the next forty years of his life, he worked on thoroughly developing its main principles, objectives, techniques, and methodology.

The Concept

Psychoanalysis is based on the concept that individuals are unaware of the many factors that cause their behavior and emotions. These unconscious factors have the potential to produce unhappiness, which in turn is expressed through a score of distinguishable symptoms, including disturbing personality traits, difficulty in relating to others, or disturbances in self-esteem or general
Psychoanalytic treatment is highly individualized and seeks to show how the unconscious factors affect behavior patterns, relationships, and overall mental health. Treatment traces the unconscious factors to their origins, shows how they have evolved and developed over the course of many years, and subsequently helps individuals to overcome the challenges they face in life
In addition to being a therapy, psychoanalysis is a method of understanding mental functioning and the stages of growth and development. Psychoanalysis seeks to explain the complex relationship between the body and the mind and furthers the understanding of the role of emotions in medical illness and health.
Ex: Fear of mind is reflected through body with sweating.


Principles of Freud's Theory of Psychoanalysis


In An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949) explains the principal tenets on which psychoanalytic theory is based. He begins with an explanation of the three forces of the psychical apparatus--the Id, the Ego, and the Superego.

Id:

The id has the quality of being unconscious and contains everything that is inherited, everything that is present at birth, and the instincts

Ego: 

The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and of the instincts.  It is serving as a link between the id and the external world. In addition, the ego responds to stimulation by either adaptation or flight, regulates activity, and strives to achieve pleasure and avoid unpleasure.

Superego: 

Finally, the superego, whose demands are managed by the id, is responsible for the limitation of satisfactions and represents the influence of others, such as parents, teachers, and role models, as well as the impact of racial, societal, and cultural traditions.
      
As humans develop, they go through stages. Freud believes there is energy flowing around the body called Libido energy. The Libidinal energy is sexual energy. Freud believes when a child is born, the stages he goes through are called Psychosexual Development.

1. The Oral stage

All babies’ actions are pertaining to the mouth. The mouth is the center of the kid’s existence. He is always eating. The most libidinal energy is cathected at the mouth. So if a person talks too much, is an oral sex fanatic, is very generous, eats too much, smokes, drinks,  is overly demanding, or is very aggressive, it can be because of oral fixation. He is said to have an oral personality.

2. `The Anal stage

this happens around the age of 2 years old. There is also a smearing instinct. The baby sometimes feels a desire to smear his feces. Anal fixation can include holding back, collecting, being stingy, fear of dirt, and over concerned with neatness, thus symbolically withholding feces. It can also include being disorganized or impulsive, thus symbolically expelling feces at will. Anal fixation can also include love of bathroom humor. A person with such qualities can be said to have an anal personality.

3.  The Phallic stage

libido is at the genitals. From about the ages of 5-11, kids are very fixated on the genitals, so it is not unusual for kids to be fondling with their genitals. This is where Freud came up with the Oedipus complex, which is the unconscious desire of a male child to want to kill his father and take over his mother. This leads to Penis Envy by the female and her transfer of love from her mother to her father, which is called the Electra complex.

4. The Latency stage

no libido energy anywhere. This is an interval of peace as the Phallic stage draws to an end.

5.  The Genital stage

the major source of libido energy is at the genitals. This occurs at puberty. This stage lasts until death. The genitals become the primary source of libidinal energy.

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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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