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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Motivational Functions of the Teachers | teacher | teacher motivation | classroom motivation | child centered approach | Techniques of motivation in the classroom |

Motivational Functions of the Teachers: (Techniques of motivation in the classroom)



            Motivation is the central part of any teaching-learning process. So it is essential to think of the ways and means of achieving motivation in the classroom situation

·Child-centered approach: 
The teacher must give priority to the learners and their styles of learning during the teaching-learning process.

·Linking the new learning with the past: 
When the teacher starts the new lesson or concept, he must be able to link the present with the past with appropriate and life illustrations. This will motivate the learners.

·Use of effective methods, aids and devices in teaching: 
This will enable the young learners to understand the abstract concepts concretely and sustain their attention throughout the class.

·Definiteness of the purpose and goals: 
 The teacher should not deviate himself from the aim and purpose of the class to be served or attained in the classroom. This will make the learners attentive and focused towards the task.

·Praise and Reproof: 
Reinforcements must be utilized positively and the teacher must give them chance to prove themselves in their academic activities.

·Rewards and Punishments: 
The must be clearly instructed and practice the reward and punishment strategies so that the students come to know the behaviour which are entertained and not entertained.

·Competition and cooperation
The teacher must develop competition and co-operation by applying the strategies namely Brain Storming, Quiz, Co-operative learning and Dynamic Group formation. 

·Ego-involvement: 
The teacher should love this profession and enjoy teaching. 

·Development of proper attitude: 
It is the responsibility of the teacher to develop proper attitude among the learners.

·Appropriate learning environment and situation: 
The teacher must provide/setup appropriate learning environment where they can develop thinking skills.

·Readiness to meet the individual needs: 
The teacher must have knowledge about the individual differences and they differ in their learning and intelligence. Accordingly, he must provide the learning strategies.

Teach the hearts not the heads: The teaching must not focus on preparing the learners for examination rather prepare them for life by teaching their hearts.

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       Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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