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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Motivation | Types | Definition | Motivational cycle | Need | Drive | Motive |


MOTIVATION:

  • Motives lead our life to achieve desirable goals
  • A number of motives are responsible for our social life.
  • Motives can be classified into two types
1.      Primary Motives: These needs are associated with the biological or physiological well being of an individual. Often it is called as biological motives. Examples for the biological motives are hunger, sex, thirst and etc. Biological motives are universal. It is basic for all living organism. It is innate and inborn.

2.      Secondary Motives: It is linked with one’s socio-psychological needs and it is called psychological or sociological motives. Examples of these motives are achievement motive, self actualization motives, security motives, application motives and affiliation motives etc.

Motivation: Definition
            Motivation as process or behavior refers to reinforced, selective and goal-directed behavior initiated and energized by a motive which aims to maintain balance and equilibrium of the person in relation to his environment by keeping his basic needs satisfied.

The Motivation Cycle

The motivational cycle can be explained as follows
1.      The behaviour is initiated on account of some inherent need.
2.      It initiates one’s own behaviour to goal directed path.
3.      In this step we are getting an temporary halt till the arrival of the nest need

                                                          


Types of Motivation
The motivation can be classified into two kinds

1.      Natural or Intrinsic Motivation: It is linked with the natural instincts, urges and impulses of the organism. An individual performs an activity out of interest on that and getting pleasure out of that. It may be outside motives or goals. Example: Reading a poem or hearing a song or solving a mathematical problem to get pleasure out of it. This kind of activity carries its own reward and the individual takes genuine interest in performing the activity. This kind of motivation has real values and sustains throughout life.

2.      Unnatural or Extrinsic Motivation:  In this type the source of pleasure does not lie within the task. This motivation has no functional relationship with the task. The individual does or learns something not for its own sake, but as a means of obtaining desired goals or getting some external reward. Examples are working for incentive or better grade, honor, receive praise or blame.
   
   But this kind of motivation brings a better result in teaching learning process. Even though, whenever we get the chance we have to go for intrinsic motivation

Some Basic Definitions
1.         Need: Need refers to a condition or state of our mind that prompts or persuades us to act or behave in a specific way.

2.         Motives: A motive is an inclination or impulsion to action plus some degree of orientation or direction (Fisher 1971)

3.         Drives: An aroused reaction tendency or a stage of heightened tension that sets up activities in an individual and sustains them for increasing his general activity level.

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  Notes By


Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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