Factors affect the study of learners | affect study | study skill | Efficacy of the learners | scheduling | process of study | strategies | SQ3R | Skip to main content
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Factors affect the study of learners | affect study | study skill | Efficacy of the learners | scheduling | process of study | strategies | SQ3R |

Factors that affect the Study of the learners:


1. Personal Factors: 
Personality, attitude, aptitude, physical health, motivation, intelligence, mental health and study habit
2. Teacher Factors:
The Professional knowledge, teaching competency, content knowledge and Technique knowledge
3. Environment Factors
The family, society, the resources in the society and peer group
4. Content Factors


The difficulty of the content, discontinuity in learning and the presentation of the subject matter in the book.

Study Skill that contribute to the Efficacy of the learners:

            No two people study the same way. However, there are some general techniques that seem to produce good results. Everyone is different, and for some students, studying and being motivated to learn comes naturally. The following are the study skill techniques which contribute to the efficacy of the learners.
  
I. Scheduling:

1.      The value of a schedule
     Before you even begin to think about the process of studying, you must develop a schedule. If you don't have a schedule or plan for studying, then you will not have any way of allocating your valuable time when the unexpected comes up.
2.      A schedule saves time: 
     All schedules should be made with the idea that they can be revised. A good schedule helps to save the time in order to study properly.
3.      Making every hour count
      A schedule should take into account every class, laboratory, lecture, social event, and other work in which you engage. There are givens such as classes and so on those have to be incorporated.
4.      When to study: The problem of when to study is critical. A good strategy is that studying should be carried out only when you are rested, alert, and have planned for it. Last minute studying just before a class is usually a waste of time.

II. The Process of Study

1. How to use your time
     Time is the most valuable resource a student has. It is also one of the most wasted of resources. The schedule that you have developed should guide you in how to allocate the available time in the most productive manner. Avoiding study is the easiest thing in the world. It's up to you to follow the schedule that you have prepared. A good deal of your success in high school or college depends on this simple truth.

2. Where to study
     You can study anywhere. Obviously, some places are better than others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place you choose to study should not be distracting. Distractions can build up, and the first thing you know, you're out of time and out of luck. Make choosing a good physical environment a part of your study habits.

III.  Strategies

1. Thinking skills: Everybody has thinking skills, but few use them effectively. Effective thinking skills cannot be studied, but must be built up over a period of time. Good thinkers see possibilities where others see only dead-end. If you're not a good thinker, start now by developing habits that make you ask yourself questions as you read. Talk to other students who you feel are good thinkers. Ask them what it is they do when they think critically or creatively. Often times, you can pick up valuable insights to help you become a better thinker.

2. The SQ3R method:
            The SQ3R method has been a proven way to sharpen study skills. SQ3R stands for Survey, Question, Read, Recite and Review. Take a moment now and write SQ3R down. It is a good slogan to commit to memory to carry out an effective study strategy.

            Survey
get the best overall picture of what you're going to study BEFORE you study it in any detail. It's like looking at a road map before going on a trip. If you don't know the territory, studying a map is the best way to begin.

            Question
ask questions for learning. The important things to learn are usually answers to questions.             Questions should lead to emphasis on the what, why, how, when, who and where of study content.         Ask yourself questions as you read or study.

            Read
Reading is NOT running your eyes over a textbook. When you read, read actively. Read to answer questions you have asked yourself or question the instructor or author has asked. Always be         alert to bold or italicized print. Also,   when you read, be sure to read everything, including tables, graphs and illustrations.

            Recite
When you recite, you stop reading periodically to recall what you have read. Try to recall main headings, important ideas of concepts presented in bold or italicized type, and what graphs, charts or illustrations indicate. Try to develop an overall concept of what you have read in your own words and thoughts. 

            Review
A review is a survey of what you have covered. It is a review of what you are supposed to accomplish, not what you are going to do. Rereading is an important part of the review process. Reread with the idea that you are measuring what you have gained from the process. During review, it's a good time to go over notes you have taken to help clarify points you may have missed or don't understand.

3. Reading
A primary means by which you acquire information is through reading. You must learn to read with a purpose. In studying, you may read the same assignment three or four times, each time with a different purpose. You must know before you begin reading what your purpose is, and read accordingly.

4. Getting the Main Idea
Getting the main idea in reading is central to effective studying. You must learn what the author's central idea is, and understand it in your own way. Every paragraph contains a main idea. Main ideas are perfect for outlining textbooks. Make it a habit to find the main idea in each paragraph you read.

5. Extracting Important Details
Extracting important details means that you locate in your reading the basis for main ideas. There is usually one important detail associated with every main idea.

6. Don't Read Aloud to Yourself: 
Generally, reading aloud to yourself does not help you study more effectively. If you move your lips while you read, you're not reading efficiently. If you read aloud or move your lips while you're reading, you are reading slowly, so stop moving your lips. Try putting a finger over your lips. Your finger will remind you not to move your lips. Make an effort to read faster and retain more - after a while, you'll be surprised how little effort it will take.

7. Taking Notes
Like reading, note-taking is a skill which must be learned and refined. Almost invariably, note taking, or the lack of it, is a constant deficiency in the study methods of many high school and college students. Learning the ingredients of good note taking is rather easy; applying them to your own situation depends on how serious you are in becoming a successful student.

8. Study Space:  
Your study space should be as quiet and comfortable as possible. Avoid studying in noisy places such as cafeterias, recreation rooms, or lounges. When studying, keep a waste basket handy. Have a consistent place for everything, and above all, keep it there! : Have everything needed for studying handy beforehand. Don't waste valuable time looking for books, notes, of other information. After you have assembled the items you need, put them where you can reach them easily.

9. Study Habits
Begin studying not less than 30-90 minutes after a meal. Never study within 30 minutes of going to sleep. Prioritize! Make a list of what you intend to study, prioritize the list, and stick to it! If possible, study no more than 30-40 minutes at a stretch. Many students retain more by studying for short periods with breaks in between. It all depends on what you're trying to study, but generally, after a period of study, take a break. Take study breaks away from your desk or wherever you are studying. Let the break be a time to think about other things. Use some break time to reflect, not constantly review what you have just studied.

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       Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai. 

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