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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING | OPERANT CONDITIONING | CLASSICAL CONDITIONING |

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning 1.   The learner is not independent in this type of learning. 2.   Classical conditioning is restricted to animal learning only. 3.   Stimulus oriented. 4.  Learning through stimulus substitution.             5.   Behaviour is elicited. 6.   Reinforcement comes before the act. 7.   Response is forced. 8.   Developed by Russian (Pavlov) experiment. 1.   The learner is independent in this type of learning. 2.   Operant conditioning may be useful for the purpose of human learning also. 3.   Response oriented. 4.   Learning through response modification. 5.   Behaviour is emitted. 6.   Reinforcement comes after the act. 7.   Response is voluntary. 8.   Developed by American (Skinner) experiment   ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Educational Psychology | Scope | Need | education

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

DEFINITION:

Educational Psychology is the scientific study about an individual in the teaching learning process.            
Educational psychology is the systematic study about an individual in an educational situation  

SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:

The learner: 

It concern about the growth and development, personal and social characteristics, their learning and thinking process of the learners. It is further useful to study the environmental issues of the learners like, social relationships, peer group and etc.

The learning Process: 

It covers the theories on Information processing, cognition and theories of leaning. Further the condition of learning and concept formation are studied.

The learning Experiences : 

Educational Psychology helps us to understand the favourable learning experiences, utilization of human resources, methods of teaching and materials to be organised in logical and psychological way.

The learning situation: 

Educational Psychology helps us to study the emotional and social climate of a classroom. The use and preparation teaching materials. Organisation of teaching aids, the time of use in the class, the motivation and the individual difference concepts are viewed here. 

The teacher:  

Educational Psychology provides theories on feed back mechanisms on teacher and teaching. It suggests various strategies to improve teaching and teacher behaviour. Further it recommends evaluative strategies in different areas of curriculum including teachers and learners.
NEED OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY:

It brings the functional areas in the field of teaching and learning.

1.      To know the learner
2.      To acquaint oneself with the mechanism of  heredity and environment
3.      To arrange learning situation/Environment
4.      To organise learning experiences / materials
5.      To suggest art and technique  of learning as well as teaching
6.      To help in maintaining discipline
7.      Rendering Guidance Services
8.      To solve classroom Problems
9.      To help in Evaluation and Assessment
10.  To know about oneself


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Notes By

Dr. A. Michael J Leo
Psychology Professor
St. Xavier's College of Education
Palayamkottai.                                                                                           

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